A Bibliography of Terraced Landscapes and Terrace Agriculture (in progress)

As a soil and water conserving technique for cultivating steep slopes, terrace farming is one of the oldest and most successful systems of traditional agriculture still practiced in mountainous parts of our region – the Mediterranean, North Africa and the Middle East - particularly in Yemen, Oman, Palestine/Israel, Lebanon, Morocco and the Mediterranean coastlands and islands.

In preparation for a new project and website on Terraced Landscapes in the MENA region (a companion to the Filāḥa Texts Project) I have started to compile a bibliography of the field, which is no doubt voluminous, and post it here in case it may be of interest to others. S. G. Fitzwilliam-Hall.

Updated 25th November, 2011.

Abu Hammad, A. and Børresen, T. (n.d.). ‘Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Farmers’ Perceptions of Land Degradation and Stonewall Terraces in Central Palestine’, Environmental Management ,Volume 37, Number 3, pp. 380-394, DOI: 10.1007/s00267-004-0195-6.
Acabado, S. (2009). ‘A Bayesian approach to dating agricultural terraces: a case from the Philippines’, Antiquity, Volume: 83, December 2008, pp. 801–814.
Acabado, S. (2010). The archaeology of the Ifugao agricultural terraces: Antiquity and social organization. Dissertation, University of Hawai’i at Manoa.
ALPTER documents, technical papers and conference report, incl. an ‘Atlas’ of terraced landscapes of the alpine region and a ‘Manual’ of good practices for recovery of terraces. http://www.alpter.net/
Andress, J. (1972). ‘The Morphology of agricultural terraces in the Kumaon Himalayas’, Yearbook Ass. Pacific Coast Geography, 34, pp. 7-20.
Asins Velis, S. (2006a). ‘Linking Historical Mediterranean terraces with water catchment, harvesting and distribution structures’, in: Morel, J-P et al., The Archaeology of Crop Fields and Gardens, Proc. of the 1st Conference on Crop Fields and Gardens Archaeology, Barcelona, June 2006. Bari: Edipuglia.
Asins Velis, S. (2006b). ‘Abandono de terrazas agrícolas: procesos de erosión y desorganización del paisaje’, in: Actes de les Jornades sobre Terrasses i Prevenció de Riscos Naturals, Majorca, Sept. 2006, pp. 289-301.
Asins Velis, S. (2010). El paisaje agrario aterrazado: Diálogo entre el hombre y el medio en Petrer (Alicante), Universidad de Valencia, Servicio de Publicaciones.
Ballais, J-L. (1990). ‘Terrasses de culture et jessours du Maghreb oriental’. In: Méditerranée, Tome 71, 3-4. L’agriculture en terrasses sur les versants méditerranéens; histoire, conséquences sur l'évolution du milieu. Séminaire, Aix-en-Provence, 3 février, 1990. pp. 51-53. http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/medit_0025-8296_1990_num_71_3_2684
Ballais, J-L. (1991). ‘Les terrasses historiques de Tunisie’, Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Suppl. Bd 83, pp. 221-226.
Barrow, C.J. and Hicham, H. (2000). ‘Two complimentary and integrated land uses of the western High Atlas Mountains, Morocco: the potential for sustainable rural livelihoods’, Applied Geography, Volume 20, Issue 4, October 2000, pp. 369-394.
Bevan, A.H. and Conolly, J. (?). ‘Terraced fields and Mediterranean landscape structure: an analytical case study from Antikythera, Greece’, Ecological Modelling 222, pp. 1303-14.
Blanchemanche, P. (1990). Bâtisseurs de Paysages: terrassement, épierrement et petite hydraulique agricoles en Europe, XVIIe-XIXe siècles, Paris: La Maison des Sciences de l’Homme.
Birmingham, D. and Martin, P. (1983). History of Central Africa, Vol. I. London.
Borowski, O. (1987). Agriculture in Iron Age Israel. Eisenbrauns.
Bottema, S., Entjes-Nieborg, G., and Van Zeist, W. (1990). ‘Man's role in the shaping of the eastern Mediterranean landscape’. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Impact of Ancient Man on the Landscape of the Eastern Mediterranean Region and the Near East, Groningen, 6-9.03.1989. Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema Publishers.
Bouchery, P. (2010).  ‘Terrace Cultivation and Mental Landscapes in Southern Yunnan’. In: M. Lecomte-Tilouine (ed.) Nature, Culture and Religion at the Crossroads of Asia, Delhi, Social Science Press.
Bruins, H.J. (1990). ‘Ancient agricultural terraces at Nahal Mitnan’, Atiqot 10, pp. 22-28.
Brun, J.-P. (1990). ‘Des terrasses de culture massaliotes sur l’île de Porquerolles’? Méditerranée, 3-4, 1990, pp. 13-15.
Brunet, M. (1990). ‘Terrasses de cultures antiques: l’exemple de Délos, Cyclades’, Méditerranée, 3-4, 1990, pp. 5-11.
Bunyard, P. (1980). ‘Terraced Agriculture in the Middle East’, Journal of Ecology, 10, pp. 312-316.
Carbonero Gamundi, M.A. (1984). ‘Terrasses per al cultiu irrigat i distribució social de l’aigua a Banyalbufar (Mallorca)’. Documents d'anàlisi geogràfica. Bellaterra : Servei de Publicacions de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, No. 4 (1984), pp. 31-68. http://www.raco.cat/index.php/DocumentsAnalisi/article/viewFile/41318/52152.
Cots-Folch, R., Martínez-Casasnovas, J.A. and Ramos, M.C (2006). ‘Land terracing for new vineyard plantations in the north-eastern Spanish Mediterranean region: Landscape effects of the EU Council Regulation policy for vineyards’ restructuring’, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 115, Issues 1-4, July 2006, pp. 88-96.
Critchley, W. R. S., Reij, C. and Willcocks, T. J. (1994). ‘Indigenous soil and water conservation: A review of the state of knowledge and prospects for building on traditions’, Land Degradation & Development, 5, pp. 293–31.
de Geus, C.H.J (1974). ‘The Importance of Archaeological Research into the Palestinian Agricultural Terraces with an Excursus on the Hebrew Word gbi’, Palestine Exploration Quarterly, Volume: 106, Pages: 65–74.
de Geus, C.H.J. (1975). ‘The Importance of Archaeological Research into the Palestinian Agricultural Terraces’, Palestine Exploration Quarterly, 107.
Denevan, W. (ed.) (1986). The cultural ecology, archaeology and history of terracing and terrace abandonment in the Colca Valley of southern Peru. Technical report to the National Science Foundation and the National Geographic Society. Madison, WI.
Despois J. (1956). ‘La culture en terrasses en Afrique du Nord’, Annales, Economies, Societes, Civilisations, Vol. 11, No. 1. pp. 42-50, Paris.
Despois, J. (1959). ‘Pour un étude de la culture en terrasses dans les pays méditerranéens’, Annales de l’Est, Mem. 21, 1959, pp. 105-117.
Despois, J. (1961). ‘Note sur les cultures en terrasses de la Sardaigne’, Revue de Géographie de Lyon, 36, pp. 7-10.
Dick, R.P., Sandor, J.A. and  Eash, N.S.  (1994). ‘Soil enzyme activities after 1500 years of terrace agriculture in the Colca Valley, Peru,’ Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment Volume 50, Issue 2, September 1994, pp. 123-131..
Donkin, R.A. (1979). Agricultural Terracing in the Aboriginal New World. Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, inc. [by] the University of Arizona Press.
Doolittle, W. (1984). ‘Agricultural change as an incremental process’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 74:1, pp. 124-137.
Doolittle, W.E. (1990). ‘Terrace Origins: Hypotheses and Research Strategies’, Yearbook. Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers, Vol. 16, (1990), pp. 94-97.
Douglas, T. D., Kirkby, S. J., Critchley, R. W. and Park, G. J. (1994). ‘Agricultural terrace abandonment in the Alpujarra, Andalucia, Spain’, Land Degradation & Development, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp. 281–291.
Duarte, F., Jones, N., and Fleskens, L. (2008). ‘Traditional olive orchards on sloping land: Sustainability or abandonment?’ Journal of Environmental Management 89:2, pp. 86-98.
Du Guerny, J. and Hsu, L.N. (2010). ‘Terraced Landscapes: Meeting the Challenges to Sustainability, a northern Mediterranean agricultural perspective’, First Terraced Landscape Conference, Honghe, China, 11th-15th Nov. 2010. http://www.alpter.net/IMG/pdf/DuGuerny___Hsu_Final_paper_16_Oct_2010.pdf
Dunham, P.S., Abramiuk, M.A., Cummings, L.S., Yost , C. & Pesek, T.J. (2009). ‘Ancient Maya cultivation in the southern Maya Mountains of Belize: complex and sustainable strategies uncovered’, Antiquity Vol. 83, Issue 319, March 2009.
Edelstein, G., and Gat, Y. (1980-81). ‘Terraces around Jerusalem’, Israel – Land and Nature, 6 (2).
Edelstein, G., and Kisler, M. (1981). ‘Mevasseret Yerushalayim: Ancient Terraced Farming’, Biblical Archaeologist, 44.
El-Fadel, M. (2004). Environmental assessment for agricultural terraces. Beirut, LB, Ministry of Agriculture.
Fedorovič, B. (1929). ‘Sur les terrasses dans les vallées des fleuves Katcha et Alma en Crimée’, Bulletin de l'Académie des Sciences de l’URSS. VII série, 1929, no. 3, pp. 311–321.
Field, C. (1966). A Reconnaissance of Southern Andean agricultural terracing. Foreign Field Research Program, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council.
Foster, K. (2002). ‘Can Arable Land Be Increased and Sustained in the Highlands of South Arabia through the Rehabilitation of Abandoned Agricultural Terraces? A Yemen Case Study, Capstone Collection, Paper 1945.
Foxhall, J. (1996). ‘Feeling the earth move: cultivation techniques on steep slopes in classical antiquity’, in: Shipley, G. and Salmon, J.B. (eds.), Human Landscapes in Classical Antiquity: Environment and Culture, Routledge.
Frederick, C. and Krahtopoulou, A. (2000). ‘Deconstructing agricultural terraces: Examining the influence of construction method on stratigraphy, dating and archaeological visibility’, in: Halstead, P. and Frederick, C. (eds.), Landscape and land use in post-glacial Greece, Sheffield Academic Press.
Frederick, C. and Krahtopoulou, A. (2008). ‘The stratigraphic implications of long-term terrace agriculture in dynamic landscapes: Polycyclic terracing from Kythera Island, Greece’, Geoarchaeology 23:4, pp. 550-585.
Gallart, F., Llorens, P. and Latrón. J. (1994). ‘Studying the role of old agricultural terraces on runoff generation in a Mediterranean small mountainous basin’, Journal of Hydrology 159, pp. 291–303.
Gardner R.A.M., Gerrard A.J. (2003). ‘Runoff and soil erosion on cultivated rainfed terraces in the Middle Hills of Nepal’, Applied Geography, Volume 23, Number 1, January 2003 , pp. 23-45.
Gaussen, H. (1927). ‘Le culture en terrasses dans le basin mediterranée occidental’, Annales de Géographie, pp. 276-278.
Gibson, S., Ibbs, B., and  Amos, K. (1991). ‘The Sataf Project of Landscape Archaeology in the Judaean Hills: A Preliminary Report on Four Seasons of Survey and Excavation (1987–89)’, Levant, Volume 23, 1991, pp. 29-54.
Giono, J. (1976). Terrasses De L’ile Elbe. Editions Gallimard.
Grigg, D.B. (1974). The Agricultural Systems of the World: An Evolutionary Approach. Cambridge: C.U.P.
Grove, A.T. & Sutton, J.E.G. (1989). ‘Agricultural Terracing South of the Sahara’, Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa, Volume 24, Issue 1.
Guillet, D. et al. (1987). ‘Terracing and Irrigation in the Peruvian Highlands’, Current Anthropology Vol. 28, No. 4 (Aug.- Oct., 1987), pp. 409-430.
Hahn, H.P. (1996). ‘Ethnological approach of terrace farming’, Berichte des Sonderforschungsbereichs, 1996.
Halstead, P., Frederick, C., and Krahtopoulou, A. (2000). ‘Deconstructing agricultural terraces: examining the influence of construction method on stratigraphy, dating and archaeological visibility’. In: Halstead, P. and Frederick, C. Landscape and land use in postglacial Greece. Continuum International Publishing Group.
Harfouche,  Romana (2007). Histoire des paysages méditerranéens terrassés: aménagements et agriculture. Archaeopress.
Hebshi, M.A., Safa, M.S. and Asanoy, A. (2004). ‘The role of terraces on land and water conservation in Yemen’. In: Zulkifli H. Shamsuddin, Book of Abstracts of AGRICONGRESS 2004. Agriculture Congress 2004: Innovation Towards Modernized Agriculture, Kuala Lumpa, Malaysia, 4-7 October 2004.
Heinrich. J. (1996). ‘Geoecological Arguments for Field Terracing in Parts of the Southern Gongola Basin, Tangale-Waja Region, NE-Nigeria’, Berichte des Sonderforschungsbereichs 1996.
Homberg, J.A. and Sandor, J.A. (2011). ‘Anthropogenic effects on soil quality of ancient agricultural systems of the American Southwest’, Catena 85, pp. 144-54. http://www.sricrm.com/publications/CATENA_1543-correctedproof-1_final.pdf
Iiyama, N., Kamada, M., and Nakagoshi, N. (2005). ‘Ecological and social evaluation of landscape in a rural area with terraced paddies in southwestern Japan’, Landscape and Urban Planning,Volume 70, Issues 3-4, 15 February 2005, pp. 301-313.
Jiao, Yuanmei and Li, Xiuzhen (2011). ‘Ethnic Culture and Nature: Interactions in the Hani Terrace Landscape’, Landscape Ecology in Asian Cultures, Ecological Research Monographs, 2011, part I, pp. 29-40.
Kleinewillinghöfer, U. (1996). ‘Terraces and terraced farms in the languages of the Tangale-Waja Uplands’, in: Berichte des Sonderforschungsbereiches 268 Band 8, Frankfurt am Main 1996 , pp. 113-125.
Kuhlken, R.T. (1994). Agricultural terracing in the Fiji islands. (volumes I and II).Thesis (Ph.D.), Louisiana State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College.
Kuhlken, R., and A. Crosby. (1999). ‘Agricultural Terracing at Nakauvadra, Viti Levu: A Late Prehistoric Irrigated Agrosystem in Fiji’, Asian Perspectives 38 (1), pp. 62-89.
Kvapil, Lynne (n.d.). ‘Untangling Mycenaean Terracing: Landscape Modification and Agricultural Production at Korphos-Kalamianos’. Archaeological Institute of America. http://uc.academia.edu/LynneKvapil/Talks/30113/Untangling_Mycenaean_Terracing_Landscape_Modification_and_ Agricultural_Production_at_Korphos-Kalamianos
Langworthy, M., and Finan, T. (1997). Waiting for Rain: Agriculture and Ecological Imbalance in Cape Verde. Lynne Rienner.
Lansing, J.S. (1987). ‘Balinese “Water Temples” and the Management of Irrigation’, American Anthropologist, 89, pp. 326–341.
Lansing, J.S. and Kremer, J.N. (1993). ‘Emergent Properties of Balinese Water Temple Networks: Coadaptation on a Rugged Fitness Landscape’, American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 95, No. 1 (Mar., 1993), pp. 97-114.
Lasanta, T., Arnáez, J., Oserín, M., and Ortigosa, L.M. (2001). ‘Marginal Lands and Erosion in Terraced Fields in the Mediterranean Mountains: A Case Study in the Camero Viejo (Northwestern Iberian System, Spain)’, Mountain Research and Development, Feb. 2001, pp. 69-76.
Lesschen, J.P., Cammeraat, L.H., and Nieman T. (2008). ‘Erosion and terrace failure due to agricultural land abandonment in a semi-arid environment’, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 33:10, pp. 1574-1584.
Llerena, C.A., Llerena, P., Inbar, M. and. Benavides, M.A. (2004). Conservación y abandono de andenes. Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina.
Lewis, N.N. (1953). ‘Lebanon: The Mountain and its Terraces’, Geographical Review, no. 1.
Luedeling, E., Nagieb, M., Wichern, F. and Brandt, M. (2006). ‘Drainage, salt leaching and physico-chemical properties of irrigated man-made terrace soils in a mountain oasis of northern Oman’, Geoderma, Elsevier.
MacNeill, J. R. (1992). The Mountains of the Mediterranean World: An Environmental History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McCorriston, J. (1998). Roots of Agriculture in Southern Arabia, American Institute of Yemeni Studies, University of Minnesota.
Murtha, T. (2009). Land and Labor, Classic Maya Terraced Agriculture: An investigation of the settlement ecology and intensive agricultural landscape of Caracol, Belize. VDM Verlag.
Nir, D. (1983). Man, a geomorphological agent. Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House.
Ojha, Ek Raj (1997). Agricultural terracing: development perspectives. Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar.
Pandit, K. and Balla, M.K. (2004). ‘Indigenous knowledge of terrace management in Paundi Khola watershed, Lamjung district, Nepal’, Himalayan Journal of Science, 2 (3), pp. 33-36.
Patrick, Larry Leroy (1977). A cultural geography of the use of seasonally dry, sloping terrain: the metepantli crop terraces of Central Mexico. University of Pittsburgh.
Perry. W J (1916). ‘The Geographical Distribution of Terraced Cultivation and Irrigation’, in Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, 1916.
Posthumus, H. (2005). Adoption of terraces in the Peruvian Andes. Wageningen University, 2005 .
Price, S., and Nixon, L. (2005). ‘Ancient Greek agricultural terraces: evidence from texts and archaeological survey’, American Journal of Archaeology, 109 (4), pp. 665-694.
Qinghua, Wang (2001). ‘Forest Management and Terraced Agriculture: Case Study of Hani of Ailao Mountains, Yunnan’, Economic and Political Weekly Vol. 36, No. 30 (Jul. 28 - Aug. 3, 2001), pp. 2846-2850.
Reifenberg, A. (1958). Struggle Between the Desert and the Sown: Rise and Fall of Agriculture in the Levant. Jerusalem: Government Press.
Rice, A.D. (2010). A study of the field design and soil properties of agricultural terraces at the Qasr Tilah archaeological site in the Wadi ‘Arabah, Jordan. Master’s Thesis.
Rodriguez-Aizpeolea, J. and Lasanta, T. (1992). ‘Los bancales en la agricultura de la montaña mediterránea: una revisión bibliográfica’, Pirineos 139, pp. 105–123
Rolé, Avertano (n.d.). ‘The Terraced Landscapes of the Maltese Islands’.
Romen, J., and Romen, E. (1995). The Seven Wonders of the World: A History of the Modern Imagination. Michael O’Mara Books.
Ron, Z. (1966). ‘Agricultural Terraces in the Judean Mountains’, Israel Exploration Journal, 16.
Ron, Z. (1996). ‘Sistemas de manantiales y terrazas irrigadas en las montañas mediterráneas’, in: Agricultura y regadío en al-Andalus: síntesis y problemas, Almería, pp. 383-408.
Roose, E. (2002). ‘Traditional strategies for soil and water conservation in Mediterranean areas’, in: Rubio, J.-L. et al. (eds.), Man and soil at the third millenium, Logroño, Geoforma Ediciones, pp. 109-129.
Rubin, R. (1991). ‘Settlement and Agriculture on an Ancient Desert Frontier’, Geographical Review, Vol. 81, No. 2 (Apr., 1991), pp. 197-205.
Sandor , J. (?). ‘Steps towards soil care: ancient agricultural terraces and soils’,
Sandor, J (2006). ‘Ancient Agricultural terraces and soils’, in: Warkentin, B.P. (ed.), Footprints in the soil: people and ideas in soil history’, International Union of Soil Sciences, Soil Science Society of America.
Sandor, J.A., and N.S. Eash (1991). ‘Significance of ancient agricultural soils for long-term agronomic studies and sustainable agriculture research’, Agron. Journal, 83, pp. 29-37.
Shimpei, A. (2007). ‘Agricultural Technologies of Terraced Rice Cultivation in the Ailao Mountains, Yunnan’, Asian and African Area Studies Volume 6, Issue 2, pp. 173-196.
Simmons, I.G. (1989). Changing the Face of the Earth: Culture, Environment, History. Blackwell.
Solé-Benet, R., Lázaro, F., Domingo, Y., Cantón, J. and Puigdefábregas. (2010). ‘Why most agricultural terraces in steep slopes in semiarid SE Spain remain well preserved since their abandonment 50 years go?’ Pirineos 165:0, pp. 215-235.
Soper, R.C. (2006). The terrace builders of Nyanga. African Books Collective.
Spencer, J.E., and Hale, J.A. (1961). ‘The Origin, Nature and Distribution of Agricultural Terracing’, Pacific Viewpoint  2, pp. 1-40.
Stager, L.E. (1982). ‘The archaeology of the east slope of Jerusalem and the terraces of the Kedron’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 41.
Stanislawski, D. (1970). Landscapes of Bacchus: The Vine in Portugal. University of Texas Press.
Sutton, J. E. G. (1984). ‘Irrigation and Soil-Conservation in African Agricultural History’, The Journal of African History, 25, pp. 25-41.
Torró, J. (2005). ‘Terrasses irrigades a les muntanyes valencianes. Les transformacions de la colonització cristiana’, Afers 51, 2005, pp. 301-356.
Treacy, J.M., and W.M. Denevan (1994). ‘The creation of cultivable land through terracing’. In: N.F. Miller and K.L. Gleason (eds.) The archaeology of garden and field. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 91-110.
Turner, B.L. II. (1983). Once Beneath the Forest: Prehistoric Terracing in the Rio Bec Region of the Maya Lowlands. Bowkers.
UNESCO (1990-98). How to improve land productivity on slopes: The rehabilitation of crop terraces in Colca Valley, Peru.
Varisco, D.M. (1983). ‘Irrigation in an Arabian Valley: A System of Highland Terraces in the Yemen Arab Republic’, Expedition (Philadelphia) 25(2), pp. 26-34, 1983.
Veiranda, F. (1981). The Art of Building in Yemen. Aarp.
Vogel, H (1985). ‘Terrace Farming in the Yemen Arab Republic. Traditional forms of soil and water conservation and their present degradation: a case study of the Manakhah region’, paper presented to the IVth Int. Conference on Soil Conservation, Maracay, Venezuela, 3-9th Nov., 1985, pp. 585-607.
Vogel, H. (1987). ‘Terrace farming in Yemen’, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 42 (1), pp. 18-21.
Vogel, H. (1988). ‘Impoundment-Type Bench Terracing with Underground Conduits in Jibal Haraz, Yemen Arab Republic’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series, Vol. 13, No. 1 (1988), pp. 29-38.
Wagstaff, J.M. (1992). ‘Agricultural Terraces: the Vasilikos Valley, Cypress’, in: Bell, M. and Boardman, J. (eds.), Past and Present Soil Erosion. Archaeological and Geographical Perspectives. Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp. 155-162.
Wheatley, P. (1965). ‘Agricultural Terracing’, Pacific Viewpoint, 5.
Widgren, M. (2010). ‘Besieged Palaeonegritics or Innovative Farmers: Historical Political Ecology of Intensive and Terraced Agriculture in West Africa and Sudan’, African Studies, 2010.
Wilken, G.C. (1987). Good Farmers: Traditional Agricultural Resource Management in Mexico and Central America. University of California Press.
Wilkinson, T. (1999). ‘Settlement, Soil Erosion and Terraced Agriculture in Highland Yemen: a Preliminary Statement’, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 29, pp. 183-91.
Williams, L.S. (1990). ‘Agricultural Terrace Evolution in Latin America’, Ohio University.
Wright, A.C.S. (1962). ‘Some Terrace Systems of the Western Hemisphere and the Pacific Islands’, Pacific Viewpoint, 3.
Wyatt, A (1999). Gardens on hills: Ancient Maya terracing and agricultural production at Chan, Belize. University of Illinois at Chicago.
Xing-guang, W. and Lin, W. (1991). ‘On the ancient terraced fields in China’, Tools and Tillage 6, pp. 191-201.
Zurayk, R.A. (1994). ‘Rehabilitating the ancient terraced lands of Lebanon’, Journal of soil and water conservation, Mar/Apr 1994. vol. 49 (2) pp. 106-112.

Other Projects & Websites of Interest

Project for The Archaeology Of Yemeni Terraced Agriculture. Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. 2001-2002 Annual Report, Tony J. Wilkinson

Project ALPTER: terraced landscapes of the Alpine arc

The International Alliance for Terraced Landscapes (ITLA)

First World Conference on Terraced Landscapes in Mengzi, China, October 2010